Pigmentation or age spots can be caused by a combination of things, and can be stubborn depending on how deep the pigmentation sits in the skin.
Melanocytes produce melanin as a defence against the sun’s radiation. The melanin travels to the skin’s surface to absorb harmful UV-rays, the process that can give us a tan. Sunlight can over-stimulate melanocytes and cause free radicals to be produced, which cause furtherstimulation resulting in age spots and patches of pigmentation.
Changes in our hormones also significantly impact our melanocytes and their activity, as can inflammation or trauma in the skin such as acne.
Dull or lackluster skin is also caused by a multitude of factors - for many, it’s dead skin cells. As we age, our natural skin cell turnover slows and rather than falling away, our dead skin cells cling to the surface of the skin leaving it looking dull. Dehydrated skin can often also appear dull and sluggish - drinking plenty of water helps, as well as using hydrating ingredients to bring back your glow.
Finally, free radical damage caused by sun exposure can leave you with a dull leathery complexion as can pollution, each causing damage to the skin and dehydrating it.